Hart-Parr 30-60
Semi-Replica Engine
Part Three
Further Development
Making a Skid for Display

26 April 2015:
After removing the engine from the Hoyt-Clagwell 30-60 butt buggy, it sat for about a year while I did other things.  I finally decided to tackle some performance issues with the engine and put it on the bench.

Among the things I wanted to change were:
-  Reverse the direction of rotation (to the normal direction)
-  Add another piston ring to each piston to try to reduce blowby and raise compression.
-  Re-machine the deck of the block so the liners are flush.
-  Bore the intake and exhaust ports for better breathing.
-  Enlarge the mixer to match the intake port.
-  Make larger exhaust pipes to match the larger exhaust ports.
-  Make a skid to mount the engine and "stack" for display.
-  Make a radiator to fit into the stack.
-  Whatever else I can think of.

I've been remiss in posting to the web page so this entry will encompass about two weeks of work on the project.

After dismantling the engine, the block was put into the mill and about 0.020" was milled off of the deck.

Milling the deck.
As you can see, the liners were not flush with the deck.  I'm not sure what the cause was because, when the engine was originally built, the liners were flush.  I guess stresses were relieved from the heating and cooling.

Repainted block with rods, pistons and head.
Not shown are photos of the pistons modified for an additional piston ring.  The 3/32" wide oil control rings were retained.  The original two compression ring grooves were enlarged to 1/8" and new rings were installed.  An additional 3/32" groove was machined above the 1/8" rings and one of the 3/32" compression rings was installed there.  The pistons now have three compression rings and an oil control ring.  I hope the oil burning and blowby are improved.

Next, I put the head in the mill, indicated the ports and enlarged them by 1/16" to 9/16".
Indicating and enlarging the intake port.
There is very little room inside the head for enlarging passages but the 0.0625" diameter enlargement didn't produce any "aw shoots".

Next, I made a new head gasket from some new type material I had gotten a while back. I'm not sure how it will work but it is thinner than the former gray composition material I had been using.  This will increase the compression a bit.  It will be interesting to see if it can hold up to combustion pressure.  I'm sure it can stand the heat as I recall  it's rated to 600 degrees F.
Banging out the new head gasket.
Yesterday and today I've been working on the skid.  I want to get it done before there are enough parts on the engine I can't lift it.  I'm going to use the "Hoyt-Clagwell" stack.

The skid, in progress.
1 May 2015:
It took a while but I've finally got the paint on the skid.

Engine going together on the skid.
The paint is some maroon acrylic lacquer that was left over from one of the paint jobs on my '50 Chevy.  I like lacquer for stuff like this because it dries very fast.
3 May 2015:
I got the stack mounted on the skid and started on what I think will work for the radiator.

Beginnings of the radiator.
The radiator is made from a 6" length of 8" diameter brass pipe.  Brass headers will be soldered on each end with six 7/8" diameter copper pipes connecting them.  Air will flow through the pipes and carry off heat.  The radiator will be mounted in the stack so the tubes are vertical, exhaust pulses will help draw air through the stack.

I will make an expansion tank so the system does not get air bound.  Thermosyphon will be used and I will plumb the whole outfit with 1/2NPT iron pipe for good coolant flow.
4 May 2015:
More work on the radiator.
                                          CAD layout for hole patterrn.                                                       Drilling pilot holes in headers.                                           
          Using chassis punch for inlet, outlet and tube holes.                  Using home made punch and die to swage holes for soldering.
I wanted to have a good solder fillet so I took some scrap and made a punch and die to put a swage on the holes.  This also re-sized the 13/16" chassis punch holes to about 3/4" to fit the pipes.

5 May 2015:
The radiator is finished.
Pipes positioned for soldering.                                                                                                  Finished radiator.

Trst fit of radiator.
I've got the pipe fittings ordered for plumbing the cooling system.  Note that the radiator sits on a baffle so air is directed through the cooling pipes.

I still need to button-up the exhaust system and do something about a gas tank and where to locate it.
7 May 2015: .
The cooling system is done but not tested.

Cooling system done.
As you can see from the photo, I've used 1-1/2" pipe for the expansion tank.  Everything went together like I planned with very little "whittling" on the stock pipe sizes.  Tomorrow, I'll fill it and see where it leaks.
The gas tank.
The gas tank was next, made from a small torch bottle.  The valve in the top was drilled out, and the threaded collar was turned to a slip fit with a piece of 3/4"pipe.  I also drilled a small hole and fitted a length of 1/8" copper tubing that runs from inside the top of the tank to about the end of the filler neck.  Both the filler and the 1/8" tube were soft soldered in place.  The 1/8" tube is to allow air to exit as the tank is filled.  I tried it with water and, although it is sort of slow to fill, the vent works well enough.

The bottom of tank was drilled and a modified 1/4" ferrule fitting was soldered in.  From the tank, the gasoline runs to a sediment bowl/filter, then to a cutoff valve before ending-up at the carburetor.  The tank and fuel plumbing will get done tomorrow.
8 May 2015: .
I got it all back together, filled the cooling system and, at least when it was cold, there were no leaks.  The fuel line got run and hooked up.

The plug connections on the "distributor" were reversed from the original because the cams were changed over for normal rotation.

Filled-up the gas tank.  No leaks.

I rolled it out into the driveway and it only took three turns to have it firing.  A bit of a tweak on the fuel mixture and one stop to re-set the timing range to a little slower and I let it run for a while.

Running with the "hood" off.
After it ran until it started warming up, a leak developed in onne of the air tube solder joints.  I shut it down, drained the water and did a quick re-flow on the solder, filled it back up and now, no leaks.

In the photo, you can see where I've mounted the gas tank.  You can also see the piece of 1/4" cement board I'm using as a heat shield for the tank.

After running for something over an hour, I shut it down and put the "hood'" on.

'Bout ready for prime time.
Here are some comments:

- After running the engine for a total of about two hours, the #2 cylinder is still pumping oil.  I think the condition may go away after some run time but I think the problem is due to a poor finish on that liner.

- The engine starts readily with a quarter turn or two, much better than cranking the "stuff" out of it before.

- Compression is noticeably higher and the engine appears to respond quicker.

- Using one of those semi-excellent Harbor Freight infra-red thermometers, after about an hour and a half of running with no load and at about 700 RPM, the temperature at the dry head was about 140.  At the water outlet from the block, it was about 130.  After running it at full load for about ten minutes, using a towel on the flywheel as a brake, The cylinder head temperature was about 180 and the water outlet was about 150.  At the top tank of the radiator, the temperature was about 140 and at the outlet of the radiator, the temperature was about 120.  Not too shabby for a shade tree thermodynamic design.

I still have a few tweaks to do on it but I think we can consider it essentially done.
12 May 2015: .
The #1 spark plug seat got messed up when I first built the engine.  It has a mysterious scratch on the gasjet surface.  This was not a problem when the engine had low compression but aftrt raising the compression, a leak developed at the #1 plug.

Today, I decided to try a fix.  First, I modified some full size 9mm plugs so a socket wrench could be used to tighten them in the head.

Milling down the flats on the plugs from 11/16" to 5/8".
These plugs are new but have been beat around for years.  Now that the flats are smaller, I have a deep well 5/8" deep well socket I've modified to fit into the spark plug wells of the engine.

PTFE spark plug gsskets ready for trial.
The new gaskets were made so the O.D. is a close fit in the wells.  The I.D. is drilled for a tight fit over the plug threads and there's a 0.100" deep counterbore that's a tight fit on the bases of the plugs.

Having nothing better to do today while sitting and watching it run during testing, I made another video.

11 May 2016:
After about a year of thinking about the oil burning, I decided to try something to alleviate it.  Here's what the exhaust and stack looked like before starting the project.

Oily exhaust pipe and stack.
After all the earlier modifications, I have three compression rings and one oil control ring on each piston.  You'd think this much sealing would keep the engine from smoking but it doesn't as you can see in the video above.

The "Plan" was to make a baffle plate to minimize the amount of oil that was splashed up into the backs of the pistons.  The thought is that there was simply too much oil being thrown there for the piston rings to clear.  Getting the baffle plate into position wasn't as easy as I thought it would be.  I ended up having to pull the pistons.  To pull the pistons, the back crankcase plate had to be removed.  While I had the pistons out, I inspected the rings and all four on each piston showed that they were seated and wearing normally.

Here is a shot of the crankcase with the plate installed.

Baffle plate in position.
As you can see, the baffle blocks the cylinders except for the slots for the rods.  When I sawed-out the slots, I kept the "waste" pieces attached to the baffle and bent them down to form a shield from the splash.  The bent down pieces just barely miss the rod as it passes and the bottom of the slots gives only about 1/8" clearance to the rods at their closest approach.  I figured that this would significantly limit the amount of oil getting to the cylinders.

After getting it all back together, I took it outside and fired it up.  A secondary experiment was to try some Wal Mart "Camp Fuel".  This isn't the Coleman brand but a diferent and previously unknown brand and as of yesterday, it was about $7.00 per gallon, which is a deal. 

After getting the mixture adjusted and the engine settled down, it still smoked.  DANG!  Okay, maybe it's just burning off all the oil that is in the combustion chambers, exhaust, etc., so I ran it for about two hours, sometimes using a rag to make the engine work and fire continuously.  After about ten minutes of holding the rag on the flywheel, the exhaust would clear up but soon after removing the load and allowing it to latch-up, it would start smoking again.

I thought that when the engine was latched-up and because it wasn't pulling a vacuum in the combustion chamber, there wouldn't have been a way for oil to be sucked past the rings.  I guess I was wrong.  At this point, I think I'll accept this as just the nature of a horizontal closed crankcase hit and miss engine.  

In any case, it really runs nicely, having a really irregular hit/miss cadence and I guess the smoke gives it character.  Maybe after I've got several hours of running on it, it will become less thirsty.
13 May 2016:
Today, I scrapped the baffle plate idea and went to Plan B.  This entails making dipper troughs with a small fill hole a'la Fairbanks-Morse ZC52.  

Dipper troughs.
The way the troughs work in the ZC-52 is to limit the amount of oil available to be splashed after starting and while the engine is running.  This is done by making the top of the trough higher than the oil level in the crankcase.  A hole allows a small amount of oil to flow into the trough, the idea being that the rod will splash out almost all of the oil soon after start.  Then, the oil level is only allowed to rise to where the rod can splash it.  This limited amount of oil is supposed to limit smoking and excess oil consumption.

Because the amount of oil splashed around is limited, Fairbanks-Morse made up a trough to catch oil and funnel it to the mains.  Here is what I've done.

Main bearing collecting troughs.
As you can see, the oil is collected and channeled into the main bearing oil holes.
Trooughs in place.                                                                                                  With oil in crankcase.
Because I was concerned about oil starvation, I raised the oil level to about 1/4" higher than it originally was.  This had the "resting" oil level just slightly above the tops of the dippers (the rods themselves just barely touched the oil).  In an hour of running the engine, smoking was, I think, slightly decreased.  

I then drained off oil until it was at the original "full" mark on the dip stick and ran it for about an hour longer.  Smoking was slightly decreased from the last test.

I drained an additional couple of ounces of oil, bring the level down to about the "low" mark on the dip stick, which still had the rods dipping about 1/4".  When I discontinued the test run after about another half hour, it was smoking less.  I will have to run the engine for a few more hours to see if it dries out as the rings re-seat after removing the pistons yesterday.

The engine might just be a smoky design.  If I cut back the oil much more, I'm afraid the mains will be starved.  At least, it doesn't appear to be fouling the plugs.
15 May 2016:
More work on the smoking and puking droplets of oil.  Today, to be able to see just how much oil is being thrown around, I took a grungy piece of Plexiglas and made a see-through crankcase cover.  I then ran the engine and studied what was going on.

Cold engine, 5 minute run.
As you can see in the above photo, running a cold engine produces condensation in the crankcase until it warma up.  Good reason to not do short runs.  After abut ten minutes of running, the condensation goes away.  

Note the oil tracks across the cover.  Much less oil was being thrown around than expected!  One thing became abundantly clear and that was that the mains were getting almost no oil.  By that, I mean, with five minutes of running, not one drop of oil landed in either catch tray.  First item on the list today was to come up with something that would catch some of the oil thrown off of the rods.  Even after raising the oil level, there was no oil getting to the main bearing catch trays.

Catch arms for mains.
Here's what I came up with.  I figured the 1/8" rod would catch droplets and, because they were bent down toward the trays a little, guide them to the main bearing catch trays.  After 15 minutes, only one drop of oil had gotten to one of the pans.  This idea needed a bit of improvement! 
Catch arms with engine running.                                                                         Catch arms with collecting "wings".
The improvement consists of a couple of copper collecting "wings" that make larger oil targets on the wings.  This worked very well, directing two to three drops of oil a minute to each of the main bearing trays, more than adequate.  I've got the suspicion that the mains have always been getting very little oil.  Before limiting the amount of splash, the mains probably got a minimal amount of "accidental" oil.  Now, they get a definite amount, which is a good thing.

There's still the matter of the smoking!  Tomorrow, I'll consider decreasing the size of the refilling holes in the rod troughs to see if I can strike a happy medium between over-oiling the cylinders and under-oiling the mains.  I'll think on it tonight.
16 May 2016:
I think I've reached a stopping point.  This morning, I put the cylinder baffle back in and reduced the hole size in the dipper troughs from 0.100" to 0.060".  When I ran the engine, there was so little splash, the mains didn't get any oil at all after ten minutes of running.  I removed the troughs and restored the holes to 0.100" by melting out the solder I used to plug them before drilling them smaller.  

After running it for a few minutes, the oil "wings" got wet and started dripping oil into the mains at a rate of about one drop per minute.  The exhaust smoked less and less over the next hour or so of running so I took off the exhaust pipes and washed the oil and nasty black goo out with solvent.  After that, I ran it for another couple of hours.  The exhaust only smoked a little (indicating the cylinders were getting oil) and the best news is that the exhaust pipes are still dry.

I'll still have to run it for a few more hours to see if the fix is true and holds but, at this point, I'm saying that the oil puking problem is solved.
22 May 2016:
After some thought, I decided that the mains needed some initial lubrication.  This is because it takes about fifteen minutes of running for oil to make it's way up to the "wings" and to the main bearing pans.  
Main bearing pre-oilers.
I think the way they will work in practice is they will be filled with a squirt of oil.  When the caps are screwed down, two or three drops of oil are transferred to the main bearing pans. I drilled a #60 (0.040", 1.02mm) hole through the brass adapter so oil doesn't naturally flow with no air going in to replace it.  The oil flows when the cap is not in place. When the cap is screwed-down, the replacement air is cut off and oil does not flow.  If more oil is wanted, the cap is unscrewed a couple of turns, pulling air in from the bottom of the oiler.  When the cap is screwed back down, a couple more drops of oil are deposited in the pan.

This could be overkill but I was uncomfortable with the mains running for 15 minutes depending on the oil they got when the engine was last run.

After doing this, I ran the engine for another couple of hours and, after it warmed-up, smoking was minimal.

This one's going to be at the next show I attend, probably at the Florida Panhandle Settlement in the fall.    
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BOY, This is fun!